Reduced, Circulating, and Clean Flows of Materials: References


1. Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker et al., Factor Five: Transforming the Global Economy Through 80% Improvements in Resource Productivity (London: Earthscan, 2009).

2. Mark Swilling et al., City-Level Decoupling: Urban Resource Flows and the Governance of Infrastructure Transitions, A Report of the Working Group on Cities of the International Resource Panel (Paris: United Nations Environment Programme, 2013), 49.

3. European Commission, Directorate-General for the Environment, Scoping Study to Identify Potential Circular Economy Actions, Priority Sectors, Material Flows and Value Chains (Brussels: August 2014).

4. Berkeley Public Library, “Tool Lending Library,”

5. Arnold Tukker et al., Environmental Impact of Products (EIPRO): Analysis of the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Related to the Final Consumption of the EU-25 (Brussels: European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, May 2006).

6. Tammy Zboral, Sustainable Cities: 10 Steps Forward. Municipal Action Guide (Washington, DC: June 2010); European Union, Making Our Cities Attractive and Sustainable: How the EU Contributes to Improving the Urban Environment (Brussels: 2010).

7. Office of the Mayor, City of Los Angeles, “Mayor Villaraigosa Announces Completion of Largest LED Street Light Replacement Program,” press release (Los Angeles: June 18, 2013).

8. Peter Droege, 100% Renewable Energy—And Beyond—for Cities (Hamburg: HafenCity University and World Future Council Foundation, March 2010).

9. Ibid.

Back to the text.